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Confirmation Bias: How do I argue against myself?

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Research shows that we are more than twice as likely to seek out information that confirms and conforms to our opinion than information that contradicts or disproves our opinion. This is called confirmation bias. But only seeking out information that confirms our current opinion is a hindrance to expanding our knowledge base and making a truly informed decision. How can we overcome our confirmation bias? Instead of reading articles or reports that confirm your opinion, you need to seek out credible information from reliable sources that claim the opposite. Can you rationally counter-argue to other argument, and can you back it up with unbiased data? If you can’t it doesn’t mean you’re wrong, but you have a new set of questions to answer and research to pursue. The important point is to argue against yourself! It will force you to think hard about why you could be wrong. Not only does it force you to expose yourself to confirming ideas and data, but it can strengthen your original opinion and enhance your overall knowledge level.


AHA! I like to be right, so I look for information that confirms my opinions.

Materials: Projector to show the activity
Grade Level: 9-12

Key Question #3/Consumer: How might different people understand this message differently?


Core Concept #3: Different people understand the same media message differently.

Activity:

Suppose we lay out the following 4 cards like this.*


Then we give you the following statement.


If a card has a vowel on one side then it has an even number on the other side.

Our question to you is which two cards do you need to flip over to prove this

statement true?


• A & 4

• A & 7

• D & 4

• D & 7


Did you choose A & 4?


Then you're like the majority of people, wrong.


People flip over these two cards to confirm the statement. If they flip over the A card and a vowel appears the statement is correct. If they flip over the 4 card and a vowel is on the other side then the statement is also proved correct.


Instead of asking you to prove the statement true, what if we asked you to prove the statement false. Which two cards would you flip over now?


• A & 4

• A & 7

• D & 4

• D & 7


The answer is A & 7.


Flipping over the A card can confirm the statement but also disprove the statement if

an odd number is on the other side. You would flip over the 7 card because you can

disprove the statement if a vowel was on the other side.


*This test is the Wason Selection Test and it shows our confirmation bias in action.

This activity is adapted with permission from an investment newsletter published by

American Money Management LLC, P.O. Box 675203, Rancho Santa Fe, CA 92067.





Last Updated ( Monday, 13 May 2019 18:50 )
 

How do Logos Look — and Why?

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Brands play a key role in the representations of organizations, as well as their products and services. Although branding strategies go beyond the visual representations that logos offer, the logos themselves are worthy of observation and study, since they provide the symbolism that represents the organizations and their structures, as well as the products and services offered. Logos provide a “seal,” a trusted and quick way to identify the origins or the integrity of a company and its offerings.  Although logos are ubiquitous and often overlooked, what might be the consequences when logos are faked, or subtly changed? What happens to the value of the company brand, or to the trust that we may have for an organization?

AHA! There’s more to logos than the image itself.
Grade Level: 6-9
Materials: Article: Can you spot the real brand from the fake? We’ve slightly altered 16 well known labels to test your brain (The Sun, Aug. 30, 2017): https://www.thesun. co.uk/living/4350996/can-you-spot-the-real-brand-from-the-fake-weve-slightly-altered- 16-well-known-labels-to-test-your-brain/

Key Question #2/Consumer: What creative techniques are used to attract my attention?
Key Word: Format
Core Concept #2: Media messages are constructed using a creative language with its own rules.
Key Question #5/Producer: Have I communicated my purpose effectively?
Key Word: Purpose
Core Concept #5: Most media messages are organized for profit and/or power.

Activity: Explain to students that logos are visual symbols that represent – or re-present – organizations, and their products and services. Ask students to give examples of logos that they have seen, and why they think that having logos is important. Then, tell students that sometimes, logos are sometimes “faked,” so that people can become confused about what is a product actually manufactured by a company – or not. Then, tell them that they are going to take a quiz that has some “real” logos and some “fake” logos – and they can see how many logos they recognize. After taking the quiz and seeing how many answers they got correct, divide the students into pairs, and ask them to discuss with each other:

      1. What kinds of mistakes did you make in recognizing the logo?
      2. Was this quiz easy for you, or hard? Why?
      3.  What do you think might happen if a company’s logo is “faked” and shown on products or advertised with services? List at least two ideas of these consequences.
      4.  Do you think that companies care about their logos and how they are used? Why or why not?
      5.  What can consumers do to make sure that the products or services they are using are really being provided by the company whose logo appears?
      6.  If a logo is being misused, what can a consumer do? 
          (Report to the company; report to the store where the product is purchased; in the U.S., report to the Federal Trade Commission).

After students have a chance to discuss, ask each pair to report to the class what they learned in their discussion with their partner.



The Five Core Concepts and Five Key Questions of media literacy were developed as part of the Center for Media Literacy’s MediaLit Kit™ and Questions/TIPS (Q/TIPS)™ framework. Used with permission, © 2002-2019, Center for Media Literacy

Last Updated ( Monday, 13 May 2019 18:48 )
 

YouTubers "behind the scenes"

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YouTubers are a popular presence in many of our lives, but is their constant posting a healthy and happy way to live – or is it more about being lonely with a crowd? Recently, the BBC did a report on YouTubers who have millions of followers, but few real friends:

When watching entertaining videos, it’s easy to forget – and we’re encouraged to forget – that the video is a construction, a product that’s put together to entertain us or inform us or to “sell us.” And when we post on our own social media platforms, it’s important to remember that we are only showing a part of ourselves or our day – which is no substitute for the “real” us.

AHA! YouTubers images may not be as real as they seem online.
Grade Level: 9-12
Materials: YouTube video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QUrNbl1lNV4

Key Question #1/Consumer: Who created this message?
Core Concept #1: Media messages are constructed
Key Question #1/Producer: What am I authoring?
Key Word: Authorship

Activity: Show the YouTube video that gives a “behind the scenes” look at YouTubers. Divide the students into pairs, and ask them to discuss with each other:

  1. What effect did being a YouTuber have on the lives of these young people? Give some specific examples.
  2. There was mention of an algorithm that drives the number of views. Who makes the algorithm? Does this algorithm have feelings? Does the algorithm have purpose?
  3. When you post on social media, what do you typically share? Do you feel that people who see your shares really know you?

After students have a chance to discuss, ask each pair to report to the class what surprised them the most about their discussion with their partner.


The Five Core Concepts and Five Key Questions of media literacy were developed as part of the Center for Media Literacy’s MediaLit Kit™ and Questions/TIPS (Q/TIPS)™ framework. Used with permission, © 2002-2019, Center for Media Literacy

Last Updated ( Wednesday, 30 January 2019 02:28 )
 

Commit2MediaLIt!

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Each year for Media Literacy Week, CML collects short video clips from students, teachers, librarians and the community stating why they Commit2MediaLit. For this activity, review the Five Key Questions and Core Concepts for media producers. Producing media is an excellent way to gain valuable skills and learn the concepts of media literacy.

Show an example of a Commit2MediaLit video then create your own!

AHA!: Being media literate is about consuming and producing media.

Grade Level: 5-12

Materials: Video camera (iphone or other). Q/TIPS chart. Sample clips from students in CML’s Commit2MediaLit! Campaign and What is Media Literacy? video, if desired. 

Activity: Using iphones or a school video camera, make your own Commit2MediaLit video. Have students work together to film each other answering a specific question (choose one) and conclude each interview with an enthusiastic “Commit2MediaLit!” Each clip should be no longer than 30 seconds. Suggested questions: Why is media literacy important for young people? What age do you think media literacy should be taught in schools? What does it mean to Commit2MediaLit?

Compile the clips and post for students, teachers and parents to enjoy. This is a fun activity that teaches media literacy through media production.  Send us a copy or a link and we will post your class work to CML’s student-made media page.


The Five Core Concepts and Five Key Questions of media literacy were developed as part of the Center for Media Literacy’s MediaLit Kit™ and Questions/TIPS (Q/TIPS)™ framework. Used with permission,© 2002-2018, Center for Media Literacy.

Last Updated ( Monday, 26 November 2018 10:58 )
 

Scary Tactics

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If you watched all of the horror films released in October, you would not sleep a wink. Have you thought about the ways filmmakers use creative techniques to make their audiences tremble with fright? Have some Halloween fun with this activity.

Deconstruct a clip of a scary movie trailer to identify creative techniques.

AHA! Suspensful music and creative photography make this movie seem really scary!

Grade Level: 5-8

Key Question #1: Who created this message?

Core Concept #1: Media messages are constructed.
Key Word: Author
Key Question #2: What creative techniques are used to attract my attention?
Core Concept #2: Media messages are constructed using a creative language with its own rules.
Key Word: Format
Key Question #5: Why is this message being sent?
Core Concept: #5: Most messages are organized to gain profit and/or power.
Key Word: Purpose

Materials: Movie trailer from an appropriately rated scary movie. This link is for the new Goosebumps Haunted Halloween movie https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6EbOgr4aTvM rated PG. For younger audiences try Coraline rated G or visit Common Sense Media list of scary movies for children.

Activity: Show the trailer three times, in this order: Sound only (no video), Video only (no sound), and full video with sound. Do not comment between showings. At the end, ask students which version was scariest, why? Using Key Question #2, discuss the effects of sound, music, lighting, and camera angles. Reinforce that all media messages are constructed by someone (Key Question #1) for a specific purpose (Key Question #5).

The Five Core Concepts and Five Key Questions of media literacy were developed as part of the Center for Media Literacy’s MediaLit KitTM and Questions/TIPS (Q/TIPS)TM framework. Used with permission, © 2002-2018, Center for Media Literacy.


Last Updated ( Wednesday, 24 October 2018 08:38 )
 
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